By Mark Mazower
Salonica, positioned in northern Greece, was once lengthy a desirable crossroads city of other religions and ethnicities, the place Egyptian retailers, Spanish Jews, Orthodox Greeks, Sufi dervishes, and Albanian brigands all rubbed shoulders. Tensions occasionally flared, yet tolerance principally prevailed until eventually the 20th century while the Greek military marched in, Muslims have been pressured out, and the Nazis deported and killed the Jews. because the acclaimed historian Mark Mazower follows the city’s population via plague, invasion, famine, and the disastrous 20th century, he resurrects a desirable and vanished global.
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Additional resources for Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews 1430-1950
Spells required counter-spells. Mendicant dervishes and gypsy ladies have been believed to understand mystery treatments, in particular for bothered animals. Hodjas supplied pest regulate within the form of small squares of paper with holy inscriptions that have been nailed to the wall of bothered rooms and Jews wore amulets containing verses from the Torah to beat back the “spirits of the air” which triggered melancholy or fever. Blunt describes a few notable circumstances of cross-faith job: a Turkish girl snatching hairs from the beard of a Jewish pedlar as a therapy for fever; Muslim little ones having prayers learn over them in church; Christian childrens equally blessed through Muslim hodjas, who could blow or spit on them, or twist a bit of cotton thread round their wrist to forestall their fever. medical professionals weren't a lot esteemed; the acceptance of l. a. indulcadera—the healer—stood a lot greater. opposed to the terror of infertility, sick health and wellbeing, envy or undesirable good fortune, the limitations among faiths speedy crumbled. ORTHODOXY: TAX-COLLECTORS AND MARTYRS yet we must always now not PAINT too rosy an image of the city’s non secular probabilities below Ottoman rule. existence used to be sincerely greater for a few than for others. Muslims have been within the ascendant, and the assertive Sefardic Jews, who ruled numerically, came across their rule welcoming and have been duly thankful. Mosques and synagogues proliferated due to legit encouragement, or even the intense episode of Sabbatai Zevi should be visible as illustrating the Ottoman state’s flexibility in regards to the Jews, who lived in Salonica, as a Jesuit priest famous in 1734, with “more liberty and privileges than wherever else. ”38 For the city’s Christians, nonetheless, Ottoman domination was once greatly more durable to just accept. The Byzantine pupil Ioannis Evgenikos lamented the catch of “the most lovely and God-fearing urban of the Romans,” and a feeling of loss persevered to circulation underneath the outside of Orthodox lifestyles. in the end, now not even Saint Dimitrios, Salonica’s parent, had kept it from “enslavement. ” Catholic viewers to the Greek lands usually observed their plight as a punishment for his or her sins, yet so did many Orthodox believers. An nameless seventeenth-century writer even pleaded in tones of desperation with the city’s saint: O nice martyr of the Lord Christ, Dimitrios, the place at the moment are the miracles that you as soon as played day-by-day on your personal state? Why do you no longer aid us? Why do you no longer reappear to us? Why, St. Dimitrios, do you fail us and abandon us thoroughly? are you able to no longer see the multitude of hardships, temptations and accounts that crowd upon us? are you able to now not see our disgrace and shame as our enemies trample upon us, the impious jeer at us, the Saracens mock us, and everyone laughs at us? 39 The small dimension of the surviving Orthodox inhabitants, its loss of wealth, and the consistent erosion of its strength left none in any doubt of its plight. The Byzantine students who had made its highbrow lifestyles so bright fled abroad—Theodoros Gazis to Italy, Andronikos Kallistos finishing up in London—where they helped hand down classical Greek texts to eu humanists.